Latest update 23 November 2015.
I have recently been educated that “” neglecting heat transfer, combustion transients, and intake/exhaust restriction; all positive displacement engines having the same pressure bounds and same displacement will produce exactly the same power. The energy produced by a positive displacement is given by “”
This means that the combustion gases don’t care inside what kind of engine they are in, what is important is the initial and final pressure and temperatures that you are able to operate at.
the higher the initial combustion pressure value and the lower the exhausted temperature and pressure values the more powerful and efficient your engine is. regardless of geometry or architecture of engine.
So the architecture or geometry of an engine doesn’t matter or affect the how much power or efficient the engine is at extracting workable energy from the fuel.
now for opposing pistons because they can handle higher compression ratios they will be more efficient and powerful.
The rest of this page and in fact all pages need to be scientifically reviewed by real
scientist and engineers.
Please ignore what i have written down and enjoy the links.
balance of flat engine.
The opposing pistons in one cylinder phenomena is picking up every where.
This video below seems to have done its work.
Unfortunately this next design is not in the major leagues yet, though the Russian had previously done something similar (link 1 link 2) , i still have more faith in this than all of the others below, coming from Australia the Coaxial engines.
The reason why I like this architecture is the there is not slider crank mechanism, to me that spells full torque. so it beats all other designs below when it comes to converting the piston thrust power to torque power.
here is another example of an opposing pistons engine from a hobbyist engine .
Going back to the major players. The major players now seem to be
Pinnacle Engines Seem to be in a tie with Eco motors for second place.
Pinnacle engines have the best valve system, they are the only ones that do full four-stroke, their system doesn’t have the problems associated with rings and the opening for intake and exhaust (heat and oil problems).
This valves system is the future, they have the best design when it comes to valves.
watch this to see their valve at work.
here is a link explaining the sleeve valve for top operation and variable compression ratio.
Eco motors.com What they have is
1-The “always pulling” on the connecting on the larger rods and pushing on the smaller rods , that eliminates the large bulk of the crank shaft, the counter wights, so their engine would be light.
2-Lighter crank shaft means the engine block would be smaller.
3-They also have the dual module turn off and turn on during operation, it’s another engine that goes on and off. They call it modular displacement, 30% fuel economy.
They also have a gasoline type engines
here is a nice link
here is an interesting boring long interview that is worth your time.
Hybrid-engine-hope They seem to be last in the game, but what they offer is the compactness, spark plug located easily. familiar architecture, easy maintenance.
Applied Thermal Sciences these guys have the strongest opposing pistons in on cylinder ( theoretical) engine architecture; without any improvements.
They have it running, what is nice about it is that it is a dual cycle during operation, they can switch between two stroke and four stroke while the engine is ruining.
If they would improve their design a bit they would rule, but unfortunately they seem to have dropped out of the race altogether, they didn’t respond to several request of information.
Their weblog is complicated but they have nice words, in this blog i have films about them on the right side. look for hipertech engine.
Now the rest of the page i will leave for historical reference.
A one cylinder engine electrically turbo charged engine with a displacement of one liter IS producing 900 Horse power, with same amount of fuel used in similar size engine, it is at least three times more efficient, while a normal american engine of 5 liter 8 cylinders produces 350 horse powers.
The true and only 80% thermally efficient engine is the one talked about by Professor Fred Major in a documentary below.
Back ground on Prof. Fred Major.
Professor Fred Major was the CEO of Energy Dynamics Corp.
His background is in aerospace missiles, he started working on that in 1975 developing the Air continental missile called the Atlas missile.
Helped in the Development of the missile technology in the USA .
He talks in this documentary about lots of stuff including his work on the Dr.Marius Ana Paul engine.
As we all know, Scientifically the engine is just a pressure vessel with lots of heat.
The energy in fuel is released through combustion as heat into the working medium-gasses which is basically Air and combustion products .
Heat expands the gases increasing their size creating pressure inside combustion chamber (vessel).
The Gasses DO WORK on the inner surfaces of the combustion chamber, Cylinder lining, HEAD of the engine and Piston crown.
This work of heated gases is what we call Pressure.
Engine parts react to this work of the hot burned gases manifested as pressure in same way, They all get hot, but we use different reactions from them to our benefit .
Head we cool while pistons we dedicate to making torque.
Talking about the regular engine head piston arraignment.
lets call The piston +connecting rod + crank shaft MECHANICAL CONVERSION MECHANISM (P-MCM), P for piston , this P-MCM system has a mathematical equation , The mathematical efficiency result of it is only 25%. you cannot get any more. simple. why is that ? Long story, but basically you have the equation of the Circle multiplied by a sin of the rotation angle of the crank to create the reciprocating effect, go here in this page you can see why .
This P-MCM enables the piston (FIRST DYNAMIC – MOVING – PRESSURE PORT,) to simply absorb this work pressure of heat in gases, turning the Gases work (Pressure) into stress on the piston crown, that pushes across piston to the connecting rod, to the crank shaft, converting Heat-pressure into torque.
This is how WE as human decide what the piston should do with this heat pressure , is simply MOVES ,
This mechanical movement of the piston our (FIRST DYNAMIC MOVING PRESSURE PORT) , is actually a MECHANICAL stress /pressure / heat reliving method (MECHANISM) , it reliefs pressure/Heat through increasing the volume holding the hot gases.
WHY is this??
Basic Gas law .
The movements of piston INCREASES THE VOLUME holding the gases, which will decrease pressure, thus heat.
so heat is converted into useful work.
Again fuel burns releasing heat into the air( gases ) trapped inside the combustion chamber which intern expands because of the heat creating pressure, pressure creates stress inside chamber and on piston, piston can move and so it does move , this movement of piston increases internal volume of combustion chamber so also internal area is increased , which drops pressure so heat goes down. Nice idea, yeah?
So we can say that WE or the P-MCM has mechanically absorbed or TURNED some of the heat /pressure combination into work/torque.
Or that we relieved the Stress (Heat /pressure combination ) inside the chamber -on the piston side by allowing the FIRST DYNAMIC MOVING PRESSURE(heat) PORT to move mechanically so the piston movement increased volume , thus mechanically relieving SOME of the pressure / heat and stress and getting SOME work/Torque .
NOW the HEAD of the engine. or the STATIC PRESSURE PORT ,
Remember the work done by the hot gases (Pressure) on the head of the engine the (THE STATIC PRESSURE PORT).
The Heat->Pressure->stress combination isn’t relieved at the head at all, in fact the work done by gases (heat- pressure) is totally absorbed differently as thermal power.
Basically the heat/pressure stress combination on the head is ONLY RELIEVED THERMALLY on the head side, no MECHANICAL relief is present , see we have the water coolant taking heat from the head to prevent it from snapping or bending ,etc.
Meaning the heat in the gases is thermally absorbed through the metal of the head into the coolant water, meaning the heat is withdrawn from the gases into head into the environment through the vehicles radiator.
So the mechanical stress is never released on the heads side.
So three ways for heat leave the deep working of the engine
1) Piston mechanical relief ———–> Heat into pressure + stress into torque. Stress mechanical relief.
2) Head thermal relief ———–> heat into pressure + stress , no stress relive but only heat relive going into engine head metal into coolant into radiator into environment
3) Exhaust gases thermal relief —> have lots of heat going through them. it is never relieved or utilized , just through out into atmosphere.
that is how we only get 25% over all thermal efficiency .
Now in the opposing piston in one cylinder arraignment.
Since the Area of piston is met by relatively same area on engine head , we can presume that using the same amount of power (heat) that goes into the piston crank mechanism also goes into head as heat and then wasted.
How to make use of that wasted heat into head? make it do work ?
The solution is presented in the page “80% thermally efficient “
The answer is simple
Put another piston opposing the FIRST MOVING PRESSURE PORT.
remove the head .
So now we have a SECOND DYNAMIC (MOVING) PRESSURE(heat) PORT. pushing against the first
So by replacing the STATIC PRESSURE PORT (the head) with a SECOND DYNAMIC (MOVING) PRESSURE PORT (opposing piston)
We now have TWO DYNAMIC MECHANICALLY MOVING PRESSURE PORTS.
What does that mean???
1- We have doubled the working area of the mechanical conversion mechanism , i.e the AREA of pistons absorbing the pressure to do work.
2- We have doubled the length of the power stork.
3- We have doubled final volume of cylinder chamber when in BDC thus….
4- The minimum exhaust temperature is twice as low as before ,that means thermal efficiency has been increased by 50% please read gas laws and thermal efficiency equations. will past link later.
Last but not least which is most important
5- WE CAN PRESSURIZE THE AIR INSIDE THIS VERY DYNAMIC COMBUSTION CHAMBER AS HIGH AS WE WANT , REACHING COMPRESSION RATIOS OF 30 TO 1.
So now we can make 50% more power from pistons. Of what ever engine capacity you have.
Why can a piston take compression ratios of up to 30:1 while engine head only can take up to 15:1 unless it is Diesel.
Simple thermal Fatigue.
back to the P-MCM
what i said a few lines before is not 100% true .
since the PCRM is not truly 25% efficient. It is less than that.
The Centrifugal forces on connecting rod and the reaction of piston as it goes up and down rubbing viciously against cylinder walls creating friction and heat drops the mechanical efficiency of P-MCM. What to do??
We have to eliminate the wast of the crank connecting rod . what to do ?
by putting two connecting rods and two crank shafts(counter rotating) for each piston.
the stress on a piston weather going up or down is totally and equally distributed .
So we don’t have piston side friction , the piston doesn’t swing inside the cylinder.
So now we have two connecting rods and 2 crank shafts for each piston.
Eliminating piston side friction to an absolute minimum.
and counter balancing each other .
Now we have an auto balanced 50% thermally efficient opposing piston engine.
When supercharged it gave 900 horse power .
There are SIMILAR engines like this one this one BUT they are not the same for example the Deltic , the pattkon , the Morton.
but this is the best of the best.
Here is a time track verses subject matter Dr Fred Major address so you can jump to the juice parts.
The Dr. Paul Internal Combustion Engine – 80% Efficient!!!.mp4
2:35 I want to talk about engines
2:43 in 1988 we won a contract from us Government DARPA agency
2:51-3:00 the challenge was to see if we can build and engine the is 50% efficient
3:00 the most efficient engine built is 30%.
7:40 the engine is a pressure vessel, poor pressure vessel.
9:20 End plate 39 engine head, 46 tear the bolts. Blew the engine stress
10:38 the problem is the way engine itself is built.
15:27 the problem is this head, very heavy especially on diesel, 20:1 pressure ratio 294 PSI. will break the engine.
17:00 head problem flat surface
17:30 all we did is solve the problem.
17:36 -18:00 we cut the head off , two pistons are opposed to each other .each piston acting as the compression port for the other, since the piston isn’t attached to the side walls you eliminated all of those stresses. You can pressurize it all what you want to pressurize it.
18:02 compression ratios (10:1 is actually 147 PSI ) while ( CR 30:1 is 4410 PSI ) , doesn’t fall apart since all pressure is on moving pistons.
19:28 eliminate the head
19:32 another problem connecting rods piston side friction
19:58 piston side friction pushes on side walls of the cylinder
20:10 elliptical cylinders
20:24 what we did two connecting rod to one piston, no pressure on cylinder.
21:08 to 21:25 single cylinder one liter 900 horse power
21:30 Normal engine 5 liter engine 300 horse power.
24:25 normal engine tank engine is about 11% Efficiency.
24:34 designed an engine uses all of the fuel ,
25:46 maximum horse powers not just 50% we got 80%
25:50 maximum thermo dynamics
26:25 the muscle car of the 70 where more Efficient than the engine of today
26:43 today’s engine is less Efficient
26:45 the car has become more efficient
27:20 car is more efficient but engine is less efficient
27:28 companies lies
27:41 catch 21 about engines they can’t get more out of it
29:35 trying to promote lets redesign the engine.
31:00 no pollution
32:07 Promoting cold exhaust so no infra red detection missile can target track it , too cooled.
Now that is a nice documentary .
Now if you have one liter giving 900 how about 2 liter ?
how about 2 liter you average car is 2 liter displacement engine .it comes to a total of 1800 HP can you imagine that ?
how about america size engine 5 liter engine 4500 HP ! WOW.
This engine is similar to the deltic but even more powerful than the deltic here is a caught from Wikipedia, about the Deltic I past the text referencing Wikipedia,
Development began in 1947 and the first Deltic unit was produced in 1950. By January 1952 six engines were available, enough for full development and endurance trials. An ex-German E-Boat, powered by three Mercedes-Benz diesel engines, was selected for these trials, since its power units were of approximately equal power to the new 18 cylinder Deltic engines. Two of the three Mercedes-Benz engines were replaced with Napier Deltics, the compactness of the Deltic being graphically illustrated: they were half the size of the original engines. The Deltic weighed one fifth of its contemporaries of equivalent power.
this is another opposing piston engine
In a regular Piston+ head engine, the head of the engine a STATIC pressure port or (heat port) , the gases heat the head, and the head heats the cooling water, that takes the heat to the radiator where it is disposed of into ambient air, in other words it ports out heat in its native form without doing and useful work.
The engine head also is the reference for the gasses to act on or against in order to be able to push the piston crown .
At the same time the piston a DYNAMIC PRESSURE PORT or dynamic heat port, where the piston works on relieving the pressure/heat of the gases by moving down the cylinder, increasing internal size or capacity that is holding the hot gases, thus turning heat-pressure into useful work. in other words it port the heat into work .
While in the arraignment of two opposing pistons facing each other in one cylinder, there are fundamental differences and advantages,
1- Each piston is the reference or the head for the other piston, i.e. Piston A is the head for Piston B, while Piston B is the head for Piston A.
2-The two pistons act and work on porting the heat into work, so basically we get DOUBLE the working area, thus double the extraction rate of work from the same engine volume.
3-Since both pistons are traveling away from each other, we got half the travel distance for each piston to achieve the same amount of expansion for an engine of the same size of classical head+piston arraignment. not to forget less friction. less stress on parts so lighter parts.
4- Since each piston travels less distance, that means it has less momentum, which means more RPM, which means more horse power, which means more efficient.(look at the the horse power equation, the relation of RPM to that, which is directly dependent on RPM.
5- Its much easier to achieve large expansion ratios.
6-Larger Expansion ration than compression ratio.
7-Variable compression ratios.
8- Since there is no head, camp shaft, Power to wight ratio is much higher in a direct relation, if you add to that the smaller parts of the pistons……
9- Since both pistons are moving, this allows them to handle much higher compression ratios. thus increasing over all thermal efficiency